☆ ESP ☆

Extrasensory perception (ESP), also called sixth sense, includes reception of information not gained through the recognized physical senses but instead sensed with the mind. Dr. J.B. Rhine was the first to term the word in the 1930's at Duke University. He looked at a few different things: telepathy, clairaudience, and clairvoyance. A simple pack of 28 cards was developed with symbols like a circle, square, wavy lines, cross, and a star. The deck was originally called Zener cards, but are today called ESP cards. In a telepathy experiment, the "sender" looks at a series of cards while the "receiver" guesses the symbols. To try to observe clairvoyance, the pack of cards is hidden from everyone while the receiver guesses. To try to observe precognition, the order of the cards is determined after the guesses are made. Now, we will take a closer look at the three types of research done by Dr. Rhine:

TELEPATHY
- transmission of information from one person to another without using any of our known sensory channels or physical interaction
- many studies seeking to detect, understand, and utilize telepathy have been carried out, but no replicable results from well-controlled experiments exist
- dissimilar to two psychological concepts: delusions of thought insertion/removal
- psychiatric patients who experience this symptom falsely believe that some of their thoughts are not their own and that others are putting thoughts into their minds

real life examples: 1) In the late 19th century the magician Washington Irving Bishop would perform "thought reading" demonstrations. Bishop claimed no supernatural powers and ascribed his powers to muscular sensitivity (reading thoughts from unconscious bodily cues)
2) Another famous thought reader was the magician Stuart Cumberland. He was famous for performing blindfolded feats such as identifying a hidden object in a room that a person had picked out or asking someone to imagine a murder scene and then attempt to read the subject's thoughts and identify the victim and reenact the crime.


CLAIRAUDIENCE
- form of extra-sensory perception wherein a person acquires information by paranormal auditory means
- the ability to hear in a paranormal manner, as opposed to paranormal seeing (clairvoyance) and feeling (clairsentience)
- often can hear things during meditation to work on your clairaudience abilities
- selenite crystals/white selenite are powerful high vibration stones, that stimulate all of the higher chakras and are known to help your abilities.

real life examples: 1) One very famous person from the past who was clairaudient was the young French girl Joan of Arc. She heard the angels speaking to her and allowed herself to believe in what she heard. She was burned at the stake for publicly believing in such things, however.


CLAIRVOYANCE
- the ability to gain information about an object, person, location or physical event through means other than the known senses
- A person said to have the ability of clairvoyance is referred to as a clairvoyant ("one who sees clearly")
- refers to the supposed paranormal ability to see persons and events that are distant in time or space
- According to scientific research, clairvoyance is generally explained as the result of confirmation bias, expectancy bias, fraud, hallucination, self-delusion, sensory leakage, subjective validation, wishful thinking or failures to appreciate the base rate of chance occurrences and not as a paranormal power

real life examples: 1) In 1784, Victor Race went for treatment at a doctors office. During treatment, Race reportedly would go into trance and undergo a personality change, becoming fluent and articulate, and giving diagnosis and prescription for his own disease as well as those of others.

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