Elephants have the ability of self-recognition. This means that when they look in a mirror they can understand that they are looking at themselves. They are also able to recognize themselves in a photograph as well. This shows that an elephant is self-aware and has a cognitive brain. Elephants are also on the list of species who are able to use and understand human tools. Elephants have been given fly swatters and used them to protect their eyes from annoying flies and other bugs. Although these tool modifications aren't performed as well as chimpanzees, they are still on record highs. We have seen elephants using paint brushes. They paint themselves, or other elephants in the pictures.

Elephants are popularly thought of as having an excellent memory. We see this in movies and in sketches of them all of the time. This could have a factual basis; they possibly have cognitive maps to allow them to remember large-scale spaces over long periods of time. Individuals appear to be able to keep track of the current location of their family members at all times.
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